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E-mobility glossary

Essential terms of electric mobility at a glance


Alternating Current (AC) is a specific type of electrical current, in which the direction of flow of electrons switches back and forth at regular intervals or cycles. 

Ad hoc charging enables users to charge at a charging station without a contractual obligation to the operator of the station.

The AFI guideline regulates the minimum requirements for the construction of infrastructure for alternative fuels.

The connectee either owns a property or building that is connected to the power supply network or commissions a natural or legal person to connect it to the power grid.

The connection user is the end consumer who is entitled to use the network connection.

Automatic function to start charging an electric vehicle as soon as it is connected to a charging station. The vehicle is authorized for charging using a vehicle identifier. Alternative to plug and charge.

AVAS is an acoustic warning system used in electric vehicles to inform pedestrians and other road users of the vehicle's presence. It emits a sound similar to the sound of an internal combustion engine and activates automatically at low speed.


Bi-directional charging is a technology that enables electric vehicles to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also feed energy back into the grid.

Fully electrical powered vehicle

The BEV is responsible for official cadastral surveying in Austria and is the national metrology institute.

BMD is ERP software and is used for accounting and warehousing, among other things.

Every electric vehicle (EV) has a BMS to monitor the battery.


Service from SMATRICS for system data of charging infrastructure.

The CCS is a combined fast-charging system based on European standards, with standardized charging methods and variants of plugs. It is also often called "Combo 2". With a CCS plug, you can charge using either direct or alternating current. However, the CCS charging stations themselves only provide direct current.

The combined AC/DC connector system (or Combo 2 or CCS connector) is compatible with the IEC type 2 connector system.

After each charge, the charging station transmits a so-called CDR, which is a data set with all details about a charging session, to the SMATRICS CPMS. This information forms the basis for refunds, for example. Includes charge time, charged energy, location of the charging session, etc.

Abbreviation of Commission on the Rules for the Approval of the Electrical Equipment.

CEE three-phase connectors or CEE plug devices are the most common connectors according to the IEC 60309 standard. In Europe, the red 400 V three-phase plugs or the blue 230 V plugs are mostly used in camping areas.

A clearing house is a company that, on the basis of a contract with the clearing members, settles mutual claims and liabilities by way of offsetting (netting). A CH connects EMP and CPO.

The CHAdeMO is a Japanese standard fast charging system and is made up of "CHArge de MOve", which is loosely translated from Japanese and means "Would you like a cup of tea?".

charVIS Business is the e-mobility management portal for business users. Its main focus lies on the management & (de-)activation of charging cards and assignment of contracts (framework contracts with linked tariffs).

charBUS is used by fleet managers to get an overview of company fleets and to issue cards to fleet drivers. In addition, charBUS is also used by municipal utilities such as Stadtwerke Ülzen or energy suppliers such as PRE to manage charging cards.

charVIS Business offers insights into e-mobility data along the value chain as well as selected self-service functionalities and is easy to use & grasp even for inexperienced user.

charVIS Operations ("Charger Visualisation") is the Charge Point Management System (CPMS) of SMATRICS and enables the technical operation of charging infrastructure. The main user groups of charVIS Operations are service agents, network operators and field service engineers.

As first-level support, service agents can view locations and charging stations as well as active or completed charging sessions. Service agents can also start or stop charging remotely and, if necessary, unlock the charging point.

Network operators can create, edit and manage locations and charging stations and use the intelligent alarming function to view and rectify relevant faults in a charging station proactively. Firmware updates can be sent directly to individual charging stations or groups of stations via charVIS Operations.

Field service engineers can view and track the status of charging stations by event timelines, and view and respond to comments placed for specific charging stations.

Management tools for handling access rights and user roles also make it possible to create users with certain combinations of rights. And due to the possibility of creating teams, the access of individual users to certain chargers can be restricted if necessary.

The carbon dioxide equivalent is a unit of measurement expressing the climate impact of greenhouse gas emissions based on the global warming potential of the greenhouse gases in a unit. It allows the comparison and aggregation of greenhouse gas emissions from different sources and is usually expressed in tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year or per kilometer for means of transport.

Engl. für Ladepunkt

The CP is one of two signal contacts used to detect an electric vehicle (EV) and control charging. The second signal contact is the Proximity Pilot (PP).

The CPMS is the backend system for the management and technical operation of charging infrastructure. It shows all information about charging stations in live operation, e.g. it shows whether a charging station is currently being used and how long it has been charging.

SMATRICS' CPMS is charVIS Operations.

The charging point operator is a market role as CPOs operate the charging stations operationally and provide customers or third parties with access to these charging stations.

The market role of a CPO includes technical operation of charging stations and their maintenance and is often differentiated between technical and commercial CPO sub-roles.

CPOaaS is the outsourcing of technical operation and maintenance of charging infrastructure while maintaining control over EMP components.

Interface between CRM and other customer data systems (billing, etc.)

Synonymous with CU / charging unit or charging station. A CS can consist of several charging points (CPs).

CSO is the owner of one or more charging stations.

CU is the charging unit or charging station. A CU can consist of several charging points (CPs).


Direct current (DC) is electrical current which flows consistently in one direction.

Dynamic load management measures the current power of a grid connection and adjusts the charging power of connected charging stations (individually or in groups/clusters) on the basis of this measurement. This serves to avoid expensive load peaks and prevents overloads.

DSM is the management of demand for services among customers in industry, commerce and private households that are connected to the power grid.

See also load management.

DSOs are the operators (and sometimes owners) of energy distribution networks, operating at low, medium and high voltage levels.


Energy consumption (in German "Energiebezug" / EBEZ) is the part of the charging process in which the charging of the battery takes place.

The EEG is a legal regulation that regulates the supply of electricity from renewable sources into the electric power grid. It guarantees the producers of energy from renewable sources fixed tariffs for their supply.

The calibration law regulates the billing of the electricity supplied and requires that the charging stations are equipped with calibrated electricity meters for billing that is either consumption-based or time-based.

The measurement results must be verifiable for the consumer, similar to a telecommunications bill. Note: if the electricity is given away (e.g. provided free of charge by supermarkets), the calibration law does not apply. See also MEG.

Calibration is the testing of a measuring device in regards to calibration regulations according to the MEG. It is prescribed by law as soon as billing is based on kWh. If the test is positive, there is a calibration mark with an expected period of validity.

The Austrian "Eichstellenverordnung" (Weights and Measures Ordinance) regulates the provisions for calibrations and controls of measuring devices as well as the requirements for calibration offices and calibration authorities. It serves to ensure measurement accuracy, reliability and thus fair and transparent competition.

EVCO is the contract between EMP and EMU.

The EMA ID is the e-mobility customer account. The EMAID consists of the "Provider ID" of the e-mobility provider (e.g. AT001) and a 9-digit alphanumeric character string (instance) and a check digit (e.g. C*123aZ90*3). Synonymous with EVCO ID.

(= MSP, MO ; is used as a synonym): The EMP is a market role that enables the service to use charging infrastructure. The EMP is in a contractual relationship with the end customer and is responsible, among other things, for tariff structures, issuance of charging cards, handling charging sessions and billing.

It is irrelevant whether the same charging stations are your own or third-party charging stations (MI). A contractual relationship between the EMP and the CSO does not come about with the same contract, the EMP enters into a contractual relationship with the CPO.

The energy management system is a set of digital tools used by power grid operators to monitor, control and optimize the performance of the generation or transmission of energy.

Designation for end consumers who carry out a charging process at a charging station. An end user can have several identification media (charging card, telephone number, NFC tag, username, etc.).

Austrian Electricity and Gas Supply Act, legal regulation framework for the commercial energy sector.

E-roaming refers to the exchange of data between different charging infrastructure operators and mobility providers, which gives vehicle users access to charging stations from different providers.

The charging costs are ultimately settled between the end customer, the mobility provider and the charging station operator.

ERP is the entrepreneurial task of planning, controlling and managing personnel, resources, capital, operating materials; as well as information and communication technology in a timely manner and as required in line with the company's purpose.

The ESB is an internal interface between IT systems.

ETS is a market-based instrument for regulating greenhouse gas emissions. It aims to limit emissions from companies by allocating them a fixed amount of emission rights that they can trade to reduce or avoid their emissions.

An EV is a vehicle powered by electrical energy (battery) or plug-in hybrid.

The EVCO ID consists of the "Provider ID" of the e-mobility provider (e.g. AT001) and a 9-digit alphanumeric character string (instance) and a check digit (e.g. C*123aZ90*3). Synonymous with EMA ID.

The EVO operates and maintains the electric vehicle (EV) on an ongoing basis and pays for charging and running costs. The vehicle operator can be a natural or legal person.

EVSE is an umbrella term for all technical components of a charging station or charging point.

The EVSE ID is the unique identification number of a charging point.


Purchased or owns the vehicle; may differ from vehicle operator:in (e.g. for leasing). The vehicle owner can be a natural or legal person.

The person that is using the vehicle.

A fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is a vehicle that derives its electrical energy from a fuel cell that uses hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and - as the only waste product - water.

Fleet management refers to the administration and control of vehicle fleets. The major challenge in managing fleets with e-vehicles is, above all, to ensure maximum availability and utilization of the vehicles, taking charging times into account.


As the meter operator or on the behalf of, the GWA ensures the technical operation of an intelligent metering system. The GWA only exists in e-mobility as soon as one or more energy meters are involved in a charging process.

In addition, these meters must also be part of an intelligent metering system (iMSys), which means that they are also connected to a Smart Meter Gateway (SMGW). The GWA can be a natural or legal person.


HPC means charging with an output of 100 kW or more.


Commissioning includes all activities to make a charging station operational after installation. These include:

  • First time activation of charging infrastructure
  • Registration of charging stations in charVIS Operations
  • Status adjustment in charVIS Operations and CRM
  • Remote problem solving(s)

For the commissioning of charging stations, on-site communication between the electrician/service provider and Network Operations is usually necessary.

An intelligent measuring system consists of a modern measuring device (digital meter, also called smart meter) and the smart meter gateway as a communication unit.

Intelligent measuring systems support secure and standardized communication in the energy grids.

According to EN 13306:2018, maintenance is the combination of all technical and administrative measures,[...] during the life cycle of an object, which serves to maintain or restore its functional condition so that it can fulfill the required function.

Maintenance therefore includes, among other things:

  • repair (troubleshooting, hardware replacement, etc.)
  • regular service (annual service, DGUV V3, software updates, etc.)
  • cleaning

Repair includes the measures that are necessary to repair non-operational objects (e.g. charging stations or infrastructure on site) and make them operational again.

Repairs therefore include, among other things:

  • filtering
  • hardware replacement
  • repairs, etc


The KVO pursues two basic goals. On the one hand, it promotes the use of renewable energies in road traffic and, on the other hand, the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

This goes hand in hand with the guiding principle of promoting fuels with lower CO2 emissions as electricity, hydrogen, bio-fuels, etc., in order to make an important contribution to the decarbonisation of road traffic.

A kilowatt hour (kWh) is the amount of energy that is converted within one hour with an (effective) power of one kilowatt (1 kW).


A charge port is a physical connection on an electric vehicle or charging station that allows the vehicle to be powered. It can come in different shapes, sizes and capacities and serves as an interface between the electric vehicle and the power grid to charge the vehicle's battery.

In principle, there are two types of charging stations: Fast DC charging stations and slower AC charging stations. There are also fast charging stations with direct current and high charging power, such as the 170 kW of CCS systems, and in the private sector there are also so-called wall boxes. These usually supply the normal 230 V household current, but unlike normal sockets, they deliver a constant 16 amps over the long term.

A semi-public charging infrastructure includes charging options on publicly accessible privately owned areas, e.g. supermarket parking lots or in multi-storey car parks.

A charging infrastructure can be described as public if there are charging options in public space (e.g. public streets and squares) that are freely accessible.

A private charging infrastructure is privately owned on areas that are not accessible to the public, e.g. on company premises. Also referred to as “charge behind the barrier”.

  • Type 1 (US Standard)
  • Type 2 (European standard; see Type 2 connector)
  • Type 3 A/C
  • CCS (see CCS connector)
  • CHAdeMO (Asian standard)
  • CHAdeMO 3.0
  • Tesla's Supercharger

Synonym for charging station, charging box or CU / Charging Unit.

Connection to the charging station where electricity for the electric car can be drawn. A charging station can contain one or more charging points.

The term "charging infrastructure" includes all technical installations that enable the supply of electric vehicles (EV) - including electricity parking lots, charging points and options for access and billing.

The course of the charging power over the state of charge is referred to as the charging curve. The charging curve is particularly interesting for fast charging over long distances, because the battery management system reduces the charging capacity as the charge level increases.

The charging management system is an IT system for controlling a charging process. For example, it regulates the optimization when several electric vehicles are charged at the same time and ensures that kW limits are not exceeded as a result.

Since March 2016, the "Ladesäulenverordnung" ("Charging Station Ordinance") has been regulating the minimum technical requirements for charging stations in Germany and defines the requirements for operators of public charging stations (public traffic areas, but also the majority of customer and company parking spaces).

Synonym for charging unit or charging box.

A charging station point is a single port within a charging station that can be used by a vehicle

An LTG (Charging Tariff Device, in German "Ladetarifgerät") is an electronic device used to bill electric vehicles for electricity consumption at public charging stations. It records the amount of electricity charged and calculates the corresponding price according to the tariffs that got set.

A charging process means connecting a vehicle to the charging station provided by the CSO for at least 2 minutes or a minimum consumption of 0.1 kWh. Energy consumption is part of the charging process.

Processes that are below these limit values are referred to as faulty loading processes and are not included in the billing.

A bill of quantities is a detailed list of all services and products required for a specific project or task. It includes descriptions of the required materials, labor, and quality requirements, as well as detailed instructions on how to proceed with the project or task.

The end consumer is the person and/or entity who buys the energy for their own use. In regards to e-mobility, 3 types of end consumers can be distinguished:

User of a household connection
If the connection user is not the operator of the charging point for the electric vehicles (EV) and only provides the electricity, e.g. against credit, then there is no energy-efficient supply of the charging point or vehicle. Requirement: The charging point is operated in front of the energy-related metering point.

Charging Point Operator
The charging point operator is also the connection user. The energy value chain ends at the charging point, i.e. the vehicles are supplied with energy but not supplied in regards to energy. According to this, the measuring point for the vehicle is subject to calibration, but there is no measurement of performance-related electricity according to MsbG.

Vehicle Operator
The energy value chain extends into the vehicle, which means that the measuring point for the vehicle can be described as an energy measuring point according to MsbG. The end consumer can be a natural or legal person.


M2M stands for the automated exchange of information between end devices.

The "Maß- & Eichgesetz" ("Measures and Calibration Act") regulates, among other things, the calibration requirements for measuring devices in official and legal transactions, in health, safety and traffic systems and for environmental protection.

In the context of e-mobility, managed infrastructure refers to the construction and management of charging stations and their network connection.

A managed service provider takes over the task of monitoring and operating the charging stations and ensures optimal availability of the infrastructure.

The administration of the charging stations can also include the billing of charging processes and the integration of charging stations into the operator's existing IT systems.

The MID is a European directive that specifies the requirements for measuring devices and measuring systems. It regulates the calibration and approval of measuring devices to ensure that they provide correct and reliable measurements.

Mobile metering refers to energy measurement using a mobile electricity meter. This system also takes place when charging processes for electric vehicles are being recorded.

See EMP and MSP, used as a synonym.

The "Messstellenbetriebsgesetz" ("Metering Point Operation Act") regulates the market for the operation of metering points and the equipment of the grid-bound energy supply with modern measuring devices and intelligent measuring systems.

In the context of e-mobility, a measuring point is a place where electrical parameters of charging stations or e-vehicles are measured, e.g. current, voltage or charging time.

These measurements can be used to monitor and optimize charging processes, ensure compliance with norms and standards, and billing of charging sessions.

Medium voltage in the context of e-mobility refers to the electrical voltage level that is typically used for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy in the range of a few thousand volts to tens of thousands of volts.

In the field of e-mobility, medium voltage can be used, for example, when connecting high-performance fast charging stations to the power grid in order to transport the required power over longer distances.

See EMP and MO, used as a synonym.


The grid connection point (NAP) is the point where charging stations connect to the grid.

The network user either feeds energy into an electricity network or draws it from the network and pays the fees for ongoing operation. The network user can be a natural or legal person.

In the context of e-mobility, NEFZ refers to the standardized test cycle for determining the range of electric vehicles. A standardized driving cycle is run on a roller test stand at a specific speed and a defined acceleration in order to determine the maximum range of the vehicle. However, this cycle is no longer up to date and is therefore being replaced in Europe by the WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure).

Low voltage refers to the electrical voltage present in the vehicle's battery, typically between 200 and 450 volts. The low voltage is required to drive the vehicle and operate various consumers such as air conditioning, lights or multimedia systems.

Low voltage main distribution refers to the distribution of electrical energy within a charging station or garage to supply power to the connected charging points. It usually includes switchgears, miniature circuit breakers, circuit breakers and other components to ensure a safe and efficient power supply.


“Standard contract” that a CPO on a roaming platform (e.g. Hubject) offers to all platform participants. This Offer2All can be accepted by all participants without prior contract negotiations.

The O2A thereby includes the price charged by a CPO for roaming charges at EMPs that have accepted the Offer2All. The Offer2All is deposited with the roaming platforms for a fixed period of time.

Actually Hubject's proprietary protocol for communication between CPO and EMP. OICP enables the exchange of POI and location information, exchange of authorization requests and exchange of CDRs.

Protocol of eClearing and the counterpart to OICP.

OCPI is an independent cloud-to-cloud communication protocol for the interface between the charging station operator software and the various e-mobility service providers (eMSP). This is used, for example, to exchange data between the operator of the charging station and the various providers of charging cards and charging software, such as charging apps for mobile phones.

For example, OCPI can be used to authorize electric cars at charging stations via roaming providers and to exchange all billing-related information about the charging process, such as the amount of electricity charged.

OCPP is a universal application protocol that standardizes communication between electric vehicle charging stations and a central management system (CPO backend). It is comparable to the communication protocol of mobile phone networks.

Online direct payment means that drivers of e-vehicles can charge at a charging station without a charging card (i.e. without a contract). It is a legal requirement of the EU that charging can also take place without signing a contract.

Public transport includes all public transport services that move people within a defined geographical area, such as buses, trams, subways and trains.

OpenADR is an energy management research and standards development effort led by North American research labs and companies.

OSCP is an open communication protocol between CPMS and EMS. Used between DSO and CSO to control network capacity.

OEM is a manufacturer of components or products that does not market them itself. The term "OEM" (as opposed to "Original Equipment Manufacturer") is used interchangeably with a vehicle manufacturer in the automotive industry.


Peak shaving is a strategy for reducing peak loads in the power grid by using energy storage or load shifting. It involves storing energy during periods of low demand or using it to support power supply during peak periods.

PhEV is a vehicle that has both an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. It can be charged from an external power source, giving it an electric range before the internal combustion engine is used.

With PnC, charging starts automatically after plugging in. The vehicle has saved the EMP contract and authorizes itself when plugged in using the ISO 15118 protocol.

POI in the context of e-mobility, contains location data from the charging station - from coordinates of the location to the charging power of the plug.

The PSP is a company that offers services related to payments and transactions. A PSP enables merchants to accept and process online payments from customers by providing a secure and reliable payment infrastructure.

The PTB is the national metrology institute of the Federal Republic of Germany and the second largest metrology institute in the world. The PTB is a service provider for science, business and society and advises the German federal government on metrology issues.

In addition to the Control Pilot (CP), the PP is another signal contact. It determines to what extent the current capability of the charging cable is ensured and activates the immobilizer at the same time.


RFID describes a technology for transmitter-receiver systems for automatic and contactless identification.

The RNO is the platform operator for the exchange of charging data between CPOs and EMPs.

So that e-mobilists can charge at as many charging stations as possible, providers of charging infrastructure enter into so-called roaming contracts with other providers. In this way, users can load from different providers without having to conclude several contracts.

If a commercial roaming contract is concluded between two providers, the end customers of both providers can charge in both charging networks.

An overview of the national and international roaming partners of SMATRICS can be found in roaming and in partner networks.

A roaming charging medium refers to an RFID card or other identification medium of a roaming partner with which the end customer can access the charging station of the CSO.

Roaming platforms act as a link between roaming partners. The partners can use them to conclude roaming contracts and bill the roaming charges made. With their specifications and protocols (often proprietary, unfortunately), the platforms ensure a technical standard that facilitates the exchange of information between the partners.

Examples of roaming platforms: Hubject, E-Clearing (ECHS)

After the conclusion of roaming contracts, the respective charging stations are "activated" on the roaming platforms. When checking the charging card at the charging station, the charging station asks these roaming platforms whether it is allowed to charge with the respective charging card.


SFC is an electric vehicle charging station capable of charging the vehicle with a power of at least 150 kW or higher.

Site Owner / Site Host means the owner of the charging station.

The Smart Meter Gateway is part of an intelligent metering system and forms the communication unit that receives measurement data from meters and processes it for other various market players involved.

SaaS is a licensing model in which applications are offered exclusively as a cloud-based service over the Internet.

The SOC is a key figure for the state of charge of rechargeable batteries. This shows how much capacity is still available.

Location partners are companies or organizations that offer publicly accessible charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. This can be, for example, a car park operator, a shopping center or a hotel that provides charging infrastructure to their customers and visitors.

An electricity supplier purchases energy wholesale and sells it to end and major customers.


Terminals are usually card terminals or mobile payment devices that users can use to make their payments directly on site.

Instrument for reducing greenhouse gases in the transport sector.

European standard plug (AC), largely developed by the Mennekes company.


The vehicle identification number corresponds to the former chassis number, taking into account international adjustments, and is still and widely called colloquially.

Distribution network operators are comapnies that operate electricity for distribution to end consumers (private households and small consumers). 


WebSocket is a technology that makes it possible to establish two-way, real-time communication between a web browser and a server. It provides a fast and efficient way to transfer data in real time without the browser having to keep sending new requests.

WLTP is a test method used worldwide to measure fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and other pollutant emissions from motor vehicles, including electric vehicles.

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